Plasma-transferred arc (PTA) welding is a thermal process for applying wear- and corrosion-resistant layers on surfaces of metallic materials. It is a versatile method of depositing high-quality metallurgically fused deposits on relatively low-cost surfaces. The PTA process is used in instances of extreme demands on wear resistance.
Enclosed plasma cladding machine can be used for welding the head, cutter, valve and other shaft parts, pipe parts of the outer circle, the inner hole and the end face. Surface strengthening and repair of wear-resistant layer overlays and damaged surfaces and disc parts.
For pressure vessel, high-pressure pipe, thick plate, rare metal zirconium-titanium-nickel-copper thick plate welding, we introduction of the highly efficient stig high penetration plasma welding machine and automated circular seam tooling for single-sided and double-sided welding through 14 mm. Forming, no beveling required.
Plasma transferred arc coating machine is automated specialized in the production of lead screws, applicable to screws, spiral parts, all kinds of shafts, and extended shaft OD coating plasma surfacing reinforced.
Manipulator + 600 kg welding positioner (360 degrees rotatable) is programmable and controlled to achieve a variety of shaped parts, conventional parts surface coating repair, and intensive plasma surfacing and welding treatment.
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Hardfacing mechanical parts, components, and workpieces isn’t an easy thing to do. In fact, it requires special equipment that can get the job done swiftly.
Are you in this type of business? If so, then it’s best to choose a company that uses PTA Welding Machine.
What is PTA Welding?
PTA, or Plasma Transferred Arc Welding, is a welding process that uses a tungsten electrode to create a high-density arc.
In most cases, it’s the welding process you will use for hardfacing on mechanical surfaces.
What are PTA Welding Equipment?
PTA Welding Equipment are the machineries or equipment used for PTA Welding.
These are the types of machines you need to use to perform hardfacing or cladding to your machines.
The most common parts or units PTA welding equipment has include:
Column & Boom
Water Chiller or Recirculator
Weaver or Welding Oscillator
Process Control Panel
What is the PTA Process?
It’s a liquid-state welding process, where the metal-to-metal joint forms into a molten state.
In the process, you use the hot ionized gases to heat the workpiece or the surface. Due to the heat, fusion happens and the weld is completed.
What is Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)?
Plasma Arc Welding or PAW is a welding process almost the same as the PTA.
They use the same method but differ on the materials utilized.
The difference is with the filler material you will use:
PAW uses filler metal in wire form
PTA uses filler material in powder form
What are the Fields of Application of PTA Welding?
Whatever industrial sector you are in, you can greatly benefit from PTA Welding.
The most common applications you can have for it include, but not limited to:
Forging of Matrix Dies and Moulds
Making Corrosion or Abrasion Resistant Industrial Equipment
Improvement of Automotive, Petrochemical, and Marine Valves
Enhancement of Lamination Rollers and Rollers
Enhancement of Cutting and Milling Tools
Development of Parts for Nuclear Plants
Developing Industrial Cutters and Blades
And Many More
What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Plasma Arc Welding?
Plasma arc welding has a ton of advantages, some of which include:
High Rate of Deposition
High Heat Concentration
More Freedom to See and Observe the Weld
Less Expensive or Costly
Apart from that, though, it also has certain disadvantages, which are:
Generation of Smoke and Noise
Difficult to Make Sharp Corners
Wider Heat Affected Zones and Weld Areas
Produces Infrared and Ultraviolet Radiation
What is Plasma in Welding?
In welding, the hot ionized gas that forms in the process is called the plasma.
Plasma is formed due to the ionization of Argon that passes through the electric arc.
Is Plasma Safe?
Yes, plasma is safe to use and it’s not different from other compounds.
But, just like others, there are precautionary standards you have to follow.
What is Plasma Welding Used For?
Generally, you would want to use plasma welding if you want to achieve the following:
Better Control and Quality of the Output
Cleaner, Smoother, and More Specific Designs
Higher Heat Tolerance
Lower Cost of Welding
What is TIG Welding?
TIG is short for Tungsten Inert Gas Welding.
It is a type of welding that produces the weld using a non-consumable tungsten electrode.
Is TIG Welding the Same as Plasma Welding?
No, TIG welding and PTA welding are two different welding processes. In TIG welding, you would form the arc using a tungsten electrode.
TIG welding is the process you can use for workpieces and surfaces that are thin and brittle.
In plasma welding, you would place the electrode in the torch and the arc is gas-infused. This ionizes the gas, forming the electrical arc.
Plasma welding is a process that is better known to cut materials and surfaces.
Can You Use TIG Welding Machines as a Plasma Cutter?
Yes, you actually can.
TIG welding machines have features that you can use to cut metal or steel. However, it might not be as good as a plasma cutter.
Can PTA Welding be Done Using Tungsten Carbide?
Yes, in fact, it’s the usual type of carbide used in the PTA welding process.
Tungsten has tough and resistant properties. So, they are the perfect material to help improve the durability of your machines.
What are the Best Welding Brands?
There are dozens of welding brands in the world – but what are the best ones?
The best welding brands that you can actually take advantage of include:
Elektriska Sventsnings-Aktiebolaget (ESAB)
Hobart Welding Products
What is PTA Hardfacing?
It’s the process of applying metallurgic deposits on workpieces.
It uses the plasma transferred arc method for deposition and for the coating procedure.
Hardfacing’s goal is to improve the properties and the durability of a part or component.
What is Hardfacing?
Hardfacing is the application of material to a surface or a workpiece through welding.
The most common materials you would need to overlay your parts are:
Who Can Help You With PTA Welding?
There are lots of companies out in the market from all around the world.
SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERA
If you’re looking for the best, China should be your first option. They have the best and the most advanced firms and organizations.
We here at Waldun have the best PTA welding equipment that you can use for your projects.
We’re the best in the region and we serve many clients both locally and abroad.
What are Our PTA Welding Machine Features?
Some of the best features that all our PTA welding equipment have include:
Breakpoint welding function
Satisfactory water cooling effect
Stop and start with just one button
And many more
What are the features of a PTA welding machine?
The cladding alloy layer added to the workpiece matrix with high bond strength.
It has fast cladding speeds with low dilution rates.
The cladding layer is dense and beautifully formed.
Plasma welding can directly use on the surface of rusted and oiled metal parts.
Easy mechanization and automation.
It has a simple structure, energy-saving, and easy operation.
What are the applications of PTA welding machine?
People are using PTA welding machine in petroleum, chemical, engineering, mining, and other industries.
Sealing welding of various types of valves.
Repair of worn oil drill pipes, bearings, shafts, rollers, wrenches, etc.
What is the classification of PTA welding machine?
PTA welding machine has several types.
(1) Cold-wire plasma welding
Use cold wire plasma welding wire as a filler material, without preheating directly into the welding zone for welding.
(2) Hotwire plasma welding
Hotwire plasma welding uses welding wire resistance of its own preheating and then sent to the plasma area for welding, single wire, or double wire feeding.
(3) Prefabricated plasma welding
Alloy is prefabricated into a specific shape and placed on the surface to be surfaced, which is then plasma melted to form the welding layer.
(4) Powder plasma welding
Powder plasma welding is a welding method in which alloy powder is fed into a plasma arc and melted to create a welding layer. Alloys are mostly made into powder, so powder plasma welding is available in a wide range of materials and is not limited by the ductility of materials like wire.
What is powder PTAwelding?
The alloy powder commonly used in powder plasma arc welding is mainly self-fusing alloy powder and composite powder.
Self-fusing alloy powder
Self-fusing alloy powders include nickel-based, cobalt-based, iron-based, copper-based, etc. The iron-based alloy powders are widely used because of the vast raw materials, low price, and good performance.
The iron-based alloy powder is widely used because of the complete raw materials, low price, and good performance.
However, nickel and cobalt are scarce metals with high costs and are generally only used for welding with unique surface properties.
(1) Nickel-based self-fusing alloy powders are divided into nickel boron silicon series and nickel-chrome boron silicon series.
(2) Cobalt-based self-melting alloy powder: B and Si elements are added to the cobalt-chromium-tungsten alloy to form. The cobalt-based self-fusing alloy has excellent high-temperature performance, good hot strength, corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. It is more suitable for a high temperature of 600 ℃ ~ 700 ℃ work of oxidation resistance, corrosion resistance, wear-resistant surface coating. Such as high-pressure valve sealing surface welding.
(3)Iron-based self-fusing alloy powder can be divided into two types: austenitic stainless steel type self-fusing alloy and high chromium cast iron type self-fusing alloy.
(4) Copper-based self-fusing alloy powder: copper-based alloy scratch resistance, good plasticity, easy to process. Mainly tin-phosphor bronze powder and add nickel white copper powder.
Composite alloy powder
Composite powders are composed of two or more solid phases with different properties.
The composite powder structure can generally be divided into coated, non-coated, and sintered, and other different categories of powder.
What is PTA powder welding?
PTA powder welding, using the high temperature generated by the plasma arc, the alloy powder, and the substrate’s surface, will be rapidly heated and melted, mixed, diffused, and solidified together. The plasma beam leaves and cools itself to form a high-performance alloy layer. It strengthens and hardens the surface of your parts.
Plasma overlay welding VS Plasma spraying
In principle, the plasma arc is used to generate back to the heat source will be melted powder attached to the workpiece’s surface after the process.
Plasma arc welding consumables and the workpiece bonding strength is better. The metallurgical bonding, the welding layer thickness is thicker.
Plasma arc spraying is suitable for a thin layer, extensive area welding; the arc column is long and can be far from the workpiece welding.
Plasma welding VS laser welding
Plasma is arc welding, the laser is photothermal welding, and plasma is generally more efficient than laser. But extreme field lasers are more suitable.
Laser welding is the process of adding a cladding material to the surface of a substrate, using a high energy density laser beam to melt and condense it together with a thin layer. To form an additional cladding layer on the substrate’s surface, which is a metallurgical combination with the material.
What is the difference between two layers and one layer of the PTA welding machine?
Welding one layer is better in terms of strength.
If the dilution rate in terms of welding two layers better.
Another defect with the base material is what the material is related to the base material’s general hardness is less welding defects.
The thicker the cladding layer, the greater the probability of defects.
Plasma cladding VS Plasma welding VS Plasma spraying
Although they are all plasma welds, cladding, overlays, and blasting are not one process.
Plasma cladding is when alloy powder is used as filler metal, which is heated and melted together with the substrate surface to form an alloy layer.
Plasma welding is applied to repair thicker base materials, such as coal mills, cement mills, and rolls.
Plasma welding is used to repair components with thin base material or suitable for weldings, such as high-pressure boiler tube wall spraying and fan blade spraying.
What gases are used for PTA powder welding?
PTA powder welding is not recommended to use a mixture of gas. It is recommended to use argon gas. It is better to use mixed gas for welding only.
What is Plasma Transferred Arc Welding?
There are many different processes and procedures of welding, and among the best is plasma transferred arc welding.
For the benefit of those who don’t know, plasma transferred arc welding, more commonly known as PTA welding, is a hardfacing process of high-quality metallurgy depositions on the surfaces of parts and components.
PTA welding is done for a wide variety of reasons including:
Extension of the service life of parts and components
Protection against thermal shock, abrasion, corrosion, and other types of wear
Improvement and development of strength and durability
And many more!
Now that you know what is plasma transferred arc welding, it’s imperative that you’re aware of everything that goes and revolves around it, too.
What is Plasma in Plasma Arc Welding?
The plasma in any of the plasma welding processes is the gas that is forced to through the nozzle.
Image of thermal plasma in plasma arc welding
It’s the gas that makes the arc narrower and controls it – without it, the gas could scatter and it can cause danger, accidents, and gas leakage.
Thermal plasma is comprised of gaseous atoms’ ions as well as free electrons. By theory, the temperatures of thermal plasma can reach up to a temperature that wouldn’t be lesser than 30,000 degrees Celsius.
What Plasma Forming Gases Can You Use in Plasma Transferred Arc Welding?
You can use a myriad of gases, such as argon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to continuously and consistently pump through the gas chamber.
NOTE: You can use it regardless of the plasma torch you’re using. An electric arc is also what provides the heat for the plasma to form and to be produced.
Does Arc Welder Use Plasma?
Yes, as a matter of fact, all plasma welding processes use an arc – whether it’s a non-transferred or a transferred arc.
Image of a welder performing arc welding
Even in SAW or submerged arc welding, it has an arc, and it is what you use to melt the material, joining them together.
Difference Between Transferred and Non-Transferred Plasma Arc Welding
Needless to say, the differences are with how the material is joined in and processed.
Non-transferred plasma arc welding procedure
But, to what extent are they different?
Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Welding
Plasma Arc (PAW) Welding
The workpiece is anode, but the nozzle is neutral.
The workpiece is neutral, but the nozzle made anode.
Electric arc is constituted between the workpiece and the working electrode.
Here, the electric arc is made part of the nozzle and the electrode, the same arc is used continuously.
Recommended to be used for welding, machining, cutting, hardfacing, etc.
Recommended to be used for ore processing, spheroidizing, spray flaming, etc.
Also known as “Direct Arc Plasma Torch.”
Known as “Indirect Arc Plasma Torch.”
These are some of the major differences between plasma transferred arc welding and direct arc plasma torch welding.
What is Plasma Transferred Arc Welding Used For?
You can find use for plasma transferred arc welding in machining processes.
Furthermore, you can use it for cutting, welding, hardfacing, overlaying, spraying, remelting, and the like.
Unlike several types of welding processes, plasma transferred arc welding or PTA welding is a versatile procedure.
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) vs. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding
Plasma arc welding or PAW is just an extensive version of TIG or tungsten inert gas welding.
Image of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding over stainless steel
You can consider it as a level higher than TIG as plasma welding utilizes tungsten electrodes. The only main difference between transferred and non-transferred plasma arc welding and TIG welding is that the former allows the welder to position the electrode within the torch’s body.
This allows the plasma arc to be separated from the shielding gas.
What is the Temperature of Arc Needed For Arc Welding?
Since it’s a procedure that is used for its flexibility and versatility, you would need intense heat that’s around 6,500 degrees Fahrenheit or 3,594 degrees Celsius to perform the weld.
Plasma Arc Welding Advantages and Disadvantages
If you still can’t decide whether or not plasma arc welding is for you, you need to know about these pros and cons:
Advantages of Plasma Arc Welding
Here are some of the pros or the benefits of using plasma arc welding:
More and better stability for the welding process
Higher intensity of power
Heat zone is just a small area or a small space
Faster and higher welding speed
You can use it to work on the lowest of amperages
Distance of the workpiece and the tool wouldn’t affect the formation of the arc
Higher energy for welding – which is better for welding thicker and larger workpeices
Disadvantage of Plasma Arc Welding
When it comes to drawbacks, there are some that you need to consider. The disadvantages or the drawbacks of plasma arc welding or paw include:
More costly and higher cost of maintenance
Subject to more radiation
Equipment and parts are pricier and more expensive
Higher skill or labor required
As you can see, there are a couple of drawbacks and cons of using plasma arc welding. But, the pros clearly outweigh the cons!
Plasma welding machines are the machines that you use for both plasma transferred and non-transferred arc welding.
The function of plasma welding machines is by melting the areas of workpieces using high-temperature and high-velocity gases (plasma) to perform the weld.
Other than welding, you can also use plasma transferred arc welding to cut, part, slice, and form shapes in workpieces, too!
You can also use it for another procedure as well, which is…
Plasma Transferred Arc Coating
Plasma transferred arc (PTA) coating is a process that you can use to develop or to improve the physical and the surface properties of parts and components of some machines and equipment.
If you’re looking for extreme levels of wear resistance or if you want to improve a surface’s corrosion and abrasion resistance, you can use the PTA welding process to coat your part or your component’s surface.
What Would the PTA Machine or System Consist Of?
Different plasma welding machines have different parts and components.
Image of what a plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding machine looks like
However, the parts that would never be left out are:
The electrode or the welding electrode is the part or the component that you use to join or combine the pieces together.
You can choose from electrodes that are consumable and non-consumable – non-consumable ones being tungsten, among others.
A plasma nozzle is a type of nozzle responsible for the constriction of the gas stream.
More often than not, the plasma nozzle is usually copper.
Powder Feed Nozzle
It’s the nozzle that you use to inject powdered electrodes into the workpiece. Furthermore, it has characteristics of being able to glue workpieces and materials together.
The ballast resistor is a part of the circuit that helps and assists in increasing or heightening the resistance as the current is reduced or decreased.
Power Source and Power Supply
The machine or the equipment wouldn’t be functional if it didn’t have the power source and the power supply, right?
Power sources are sources that have energy to produce electricity – or energy to make the machine work. The power supply is the part or the component that links the power source to the electrical component, making it have power.
A gas console is a component that is responsible for the controlling of gas pressures. You use it to have full control over the pressure of plasma transmitted to the workpiece.
From its term alone, you already know that the water or liquid chiller functions as a type of heat removal medium, as it transfers the heat (from the machine or the electrical unit) to another place or location to avoid overheating.
These are the most customary parts and components you can get from plasma arc welding machines and equipment.
How Much is a Plasma Cutting Machine?
Of course, the rates and the prices of machinery and equipment will vary. It will depend on quite a few factors, and they include the size, the type, the features, as well as the functionalities of the machine.
The range of price can go a staggering range of $15,000 and $300,000 on initial investment.
What Two (2) Methods are Used to Start a Plasma Cutting Arc?
The method or the process of starting the arc depends on the machine’s age and environment.
High-Frequency (HF) initiation to start the cutter
But, the 2 most-known methods and processes are: High- Frequency (HF) Method and Internal Contact Start (Pilot Start).
In the HF method, both the nozzle and the electrode are in a fixed position and the arc fills in the gap from the workpiece and the nozzle.
Using the discharge transmitted to the torch, it creates a short spark, which then ionizes the gas through the torch.
With the Touch Start or the Pilot Start, however, you can cut the workpiece without touching the tip of the welder to the metal.
Can You Improve the Quality of Plasma Cutting?
There are several processes and tips you can do to improve the quality of the cut – they include:
Top edge rounding
Positive and negative cut angle
Different Applications of PTA Welding
Thanks to the versatility and the flexibility of the PTA welding method, you can find a lot of uses for the plasma transferred arc welding.
However, the most customary uses of it include:
Protection of parts and components via coating
Hardfacing machines and equipment
Welding 2 or more pieces of metal and steel together
Cutting and slicing through multiple workpieces
And many more!
Many industries find PTA welding their go-to option because of the pros and the benefits that it has over other types and kinds of welding procedures.
How Accurate is Plasma Cutting?
You might be thinking what makes plasma welding the favorite choice and option for cutting and for other welding procedures.
Well, in most plasma cutting and welding machines, the high-accuracy and high-precision system can help and assist you to have accuracies that range between ± 0.01 and 0.05 inches.
How Thick Can a Plasma Welding Cut?
You can expect plasma cutters to perform gouging and cutting operations to maximum metal thicknesses of about one (1) full inch.
However, you can go higher and thicker than that, given that you are equipped with the right sets of tools, experience, and materials.
What is the reason that the hardness of plasma powder welding does not meet the standard?
First: different grades of alloy powder (welding consumables) have a corresponding hardness; you can see if the alloy powder problems.
Second, if a specific grade of powder hardness of HRC50, but the hardness after welding is not 50 degrees, it is possible to surface the thickness of too thin.